The world’s oceans are increasingly becoming a reservoir of anthropogenic products of the modern world. From pesticides to plastics, to fertilisers, oil, solid garbage, toxic chemicals and sewage. The waste we produce on land eventually reaches the oceans, either through deliberate dumping or from run-off through rivers and drains.
Allied with these are activities such as over-fishing and increased rates of sedimentation and nutrient in-flows into coastal waters, the introduction of exotic species from ballast water discharged from ships as they ply the world’s oceans, habitat destruction and climate-induced changes to both the biotic and abiotic components of marine ecosystems. The list seems endless!